Farhad Hafezi, M.D., Ph.D.


Farhad Hafezi was born in 1967 and grew up in Fribourg in Switzerland. He studied medicine in Fribourg and Berne.

Graduate and Postgraduate studies, Research
From 1993 to 1994, Hafezi participated in a two year-course in experimental medicine and biology (now MBiol) at the ETH and the University of Zurich. He spent three additional years in the Laboratory for Retinal Cell Biology of the Department of Ophthalmology of the University Hospital of Zurich. His main focus were molecular mechanisms of retinal degeneration, and he identified the first gene that essentially regulates light-induced retinal degeneration (Hafezi et al., Nature Medicine, 1997).

Clinical activities
Prof. Hafezi’s clinical focus are the cornea and complication management after complicated refractive laser surgery. He was instrumental in implementing corneal cross-linking technology in ophthalmology.
From 2010 to 2014, Farhad Hafezi was Professor and Chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology of the Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.
In 2012, he was also appointed Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology at the Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles.

Current positions
Professor at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland
Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, Dept. of Ophthalmology, University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles, USA
Chief Medical Officer, The ELZA Institute, Zurich, Switzerland

Publications
By June 2015, Prof. Hafezi has published more than 150 scientific articles, and his work has been cited more than 6’000 times. His total impact factor is 524, and his h index is 40.
You may find his research profiles here: Google Scholar, Research Gate, and with www.vision.research.eu.
He is an Associate Editor of the „Journal of Refractive Surgery“ and on the Editorial Board of the „International Journal of Keratoconus and Ectatic Corneal Disease”, “Current Eye Research”, „TVST“ and the „Iranian Journal of Ophthalmology”.
He also frequently moderates courses at the ESCRS (European Society for Cataract and Refractive Surgery) and the AAO (American Academy of Ophthalmology).

Awards, „Power List“
Prof. Hafezi has received 19 national and international awards and distinctions, both for his scientific work and for the development of new technologies (innovation awards). Awards include, amongst others, the ARVO Foundation/Carl Camras Translational Research Award (USA) 2014, as well as the highest distinctions in ophthalmology of Switzerland and Belgium.

In 2014, the readers of the british journal “The Ophthalmologist” voted Prof. Hafezi onto the “Power List”, a list of the 100 most influential personalities in ophthalmology. Read more here. In 2016, he has elected onto the Power List again.

Farhad Hafezi fluently speaks German (mother tongue), English, French, Polish and Farsi. He is married and has three daughters.



Scientific publications authored by Farhad Hafezi


Fixing your SMILE: how do you reoperate, and what are the consequences for corneal strength?

Other vision healthcare professionals regularly refer patients to ELZA who have “challenging corneas”; many are those whose original laser refractive ...
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Children: to cross-link or not to cross-link?

Children: to cross-link or not to cross-link?

Children: to cross-link or not to cross-link? If a person is going to develop keratoconus, that person is more likely to ...
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SmILE biomechanically more solid than flap-based laser surgery

SmILE provides a biomechanically more solid residual cornea than flap-based approaches. SmILE more solid than flap-based refractive laser surgery: this ...
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Algorithm predicts CXL effect

A new algorithm to predict the Cross-Linking effect

New algorithm predicts CXL effect and might help to treat keratoconus corneas thinner than 400 µm. Algorithm predicts CXL effect: ...
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Journal of Refractive Surgery April 2017 Cross-Linking at the slit lamp

Another step towards cross-linking at the slit lamp

Journal of Refractive Surgery: Cross-Linking at the slit lamp and riboflavin distribution. We are currently developing the technique of slit lamp ...
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Veterinary Ophthalmology Journal

New insights on the penetration depth of cross-linking

Penetration depth of Cross-Linking is species-dependent. In this scientific article, we supported the research of our partner group around Prof ...
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The effect of repeated Corneal Cross-Linking

Repeated Corneal Cross-Linking under laboratory conditions does not increase biomechanics. In this scientific article from our basic research group, which ...
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2nd edition of the textbook „Corneal Cross-Linking“ available at ASCRS 2017

Our Textbook on Corneal Cross-Linking available at ASCRS Los Angeles May 2017. We are proud to announce that the completely ...
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Review on Corneal Biomechanics

February 2017. Review on Corneal Biomechanics by Sabine Kling. Dr. Sabine Kling from our research team at the University of ...
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Chinese translation of the Hafezi/Randleman Cross-Linking textbook

January 2017. University of Wenzhou, China. The textbook "Corneal Cross-Linking" by Farhad Hafezi and J. Bradley Randleman is the oldest ...
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October 2016: ELZA and CME in the Middle East

ELZA and CME for ophthalmologists in the Middle East ELZA and CME for ophthalmologists in the Middle East: The Focal ...
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Medical Textbook on Corneal Cross-Linking, 2nd edition

Slack Inc., Thorofare, New Jersey We proudly announce that the second edition of our medical textbook "Corneal Cross-Linking" will soon ...
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July 2016: Argus II retinal prosthesis, 5-year data

Ophthalmology. The present study describes the clinical outcomes of the Argus II retinal prosthesis in patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) ...
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epi-on Cross-Linking

June 2016: ELZAs international clinical trial on epi-on Cross-Linking

 Journal of Refractive Surgery. Epi-on Cross-Linking has so far been disappointing in terms of clinical outcomes. It is clearly inferior to ...
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March 2016: Does Pulsed Cross-Linking for keratoconus provide any clinical advantage?

Journal of Refractive Surgery. This clinical study by Alireza Peyman, with the participation of the ELZA members Farhad Hafezi and ...
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January 2016: How to choose the best cross-linking procedure in 2016

European Ophthalmic Review. Epi-on or epi-off? Accelerated or not? A review from Nikki Hafezi and Farhad Hafezi on the current ...
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New research on thin corneas from Zurich might be the clue to cross-linking very thin keratoconus corneas in the future

Journal of Refractive Surgery. Zurich, Switzerland. A new study by the research group of Prof. Farhad Hafezi may open new alleys ...
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New major review about corneal cross-linking

Survey of Ophthalmology. From the editors of the textbook on "Corneal Cross-Linking" comes a new and major review on current and future ...
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New study from Switzerland will allow for a better understanding of corneal cross-linking

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. New research from ELZA members opens up new alleys to study the molecular events underlying ...
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Accelerated CXL: proceed with caution

American Journal of Ophthalmology. This new clinical study compares the effect of an accelerated CXL protocol in patients with keratoconus with ...
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The new definition of keratoconus (Article in german)

Ophta. Article explaining the recent consensus taken between the four supranational corneal societies. Thirty-six global experts revisited the current definition ...
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Review on structure of the cornea after cross-linking

Ocular Surface Journal. This review gives a complete overview about structural and confocal changes after corneal cross-linking. Read here ...
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Artificial retina: long-term results of the Argus II implant

American Journal of Ophthalmology. This multicenter shows the long-term results of the Argus II retinal implant to restore sight in ...
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Review on PACK-Crosslinking

Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research. The most recent and complete overview about this exciting new technology to treat corneal ...
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Keratoconus Experts Meeting 2014

International Keratoconus Experts Meeting 2014 Summary paper of the 2014 meeting of the International Keratoconus Experts Group Meeting 2014. Published by ...
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Cigarette smoking increases intraocular pressure

Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. First report showing that chronic smokers may have an elevated intraocular pressure. Read here ...
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Role of epithelial removal in cross-linking (CXL)

Journal of Refractive Surgery. This scientific study and article with Prof. Hafezi as co-author compares total and partial epithelial removal ...
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Corneal biomechanics during pregnancy

Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. Research letter discussing the effect of pregnancy and oestrogen on the biomechanical stability of ...
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PACK-CXL in fungal keratitis

Journal of Refractive Surgery. Article describing the successful use of PACK-CXL as primary therapy in contact lens-related fungal keratitis. Read here ...
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Prospective scientific study on PACK-CXL for corneal infections

Ophthalmology. The so far largest study on PACK-CXL for the treatment of advanced corneal ulcers. Led by ELZA member Farhad ...
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PACK-CXL for corneal infections can be accelerated

Journal of Refractive Surgery. ELZA research shows that PACK-CXL can be accelerated from 30 minutes to 150 seconds only, while ...
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Venous Sinus Thrombosis Associated with Contraceptive Usage

Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research. Case report demonstrating the occurrence of Venous Sinus Thrombosis Associated with Contraceptive Usage. Read ...
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Patients with thyroid-related disease display altered corneal biomechanics

Acta Ophthalmologica. Study describing the effect of Graves' disease of the thyroid on corneal biomechanics. Read the article here ...
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Reduced Corneal Nerve Density in Congenital Glaucoma

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. Letter discussing a study by Mahelkova and colleagues on congenital glaucoma. Read here ...
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How to treat the peripheral cornea in PMD

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS). Scientific study showing that the limbus of the cornea can safely be irradiated during ...
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Increase precision of laser treatment after Cross-Linking

Journal of Refractive Surgery. A major open issue when performing an excimer laser PRK after Cross-Linking is: how precise is ...
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New technique to measure the biomechanical effect of Cross-Linking

PLOS One. ELZA members developed a new laboratory technique to measure corneal biomechanics before and after Cross-Linking. Read the article ...
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Cross-Linking for Terrien’s Marginal Degeneration (TMD)

Journal of Refractive Surgery. Scientific article describing the first use of cross-linking to treat TMD. Read here ...
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Defining a new term: PACK-CXL for corneal infection

Journal of Refractive Surgery. ELZA members define the new term for cross-linking for corneal infection. Read the Editorial here ...
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Cross-Linking not reliable at high intensities

Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (IOVS). Laboratory study showing that CXL at high intensities is less efficient biomechanically. Read here ...
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Treating keratoconus by Cross-Linking (Article in french)

Revue Medicale Suisse. Review by ELZA member Farhad Hafezi. Read here (Article in french) ...
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Repeat Cross-Linking for keratoconus

Journal of Refractive Surgery. Does repeated cross-linking for keratoconus have double the effect? A manuscript from Prof. Hafezi's research group ...
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Femtosecond laser versus mechanical microkeratome

Clinical Ophthalmology. Scientific study showing that the Femtosecond laser cut is superior to a mechanical microkeratome. Read here ...
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The cornea in thyroid gland dysfunction

Journal of Refractive Surgery. Our group shows that hypothyroidism and related hormonal changes affect the biomechanical stability of the cornea ...
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The biomechanical effect of Corneal Cross-Linking is oxygen-dependent

Translational Vision Science & Technology. This paper from our group shows that, without oxygen, there is no increase in biomechanical ...
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Impact of Fluorescein on treating corneal infection with cross-linking

Journal of Refractive Surgery. Study showing that the eye surgeon must avoid fluorescein staining of a corneal ulcer immediately prior ...
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Accelerated cross-linking in keratoconus

Journal of Refractive Surgery. Members of ELZA were the first to report on the outcomes of using CXL at high ...
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Pruritic Acquired Nevus of Ota

Dermatology. Case report on a Pruritic Acquired Nevus of Ota. Read here ...
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Veterinary Ophthalmology Journal

Treatment of bullous keratopathy, veterinary use

Veterinary ophthalmology. Treatment of bullous keratopathy in the veterinary use, with important gain of knowledge also for the human condition ...
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Veterinary Ophthalmology Journal

CXL for melting keratitis, veterinary use

Veterinary Ophthalmology. Case series on the use of PACK-CXL for melting keratitis in the veterinary field. Read here ...
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Corneal nerve sensitivity after CXL

Cornea. Letter discussing the effect of CXL on corneal nerve sensitivity. Read here ...
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Veterinary Ophthalmology Journal

Treatment of infectious corneal melting, veterinary use

Veterinary Ophthalmology. Scientific study on the value of PACK-CXL for the treatment of infectious and non-infectious corneal melting for veterinary ...
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Effect of ranibizumab (Lucentis) on pigment epithelium detachment

Drug Design, Development and Therapy. Prospective clinical study on the effect of ranibizumab (Lucentis) on pigment epithelium detachment. Read here ...
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3 Step-Procedure to treat keratoconus

Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. Clinical Study demonstrating the effect of combining phakic lenses, intracorneal rings, and cross-linking to ...
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Management of antithrombotic therapy in eye surgery

European Journal of Anesthesiology. Read here ...
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Uveoscleral pathways in an animal model for glaucoma

Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. Laboratory study investigating uveoscleral pathways in an animal model for glaucoma. Read here ...
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Pellucid Marginal Degeneration (PMD)

Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. How to properly diagnose Detect Pellucid Marginal Degeneration (PMD) using corneal topography. Read the ...
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Ectasia after LASIK, long-term results

Ophthalmology. Extension of the initial 2007 study on the positive effect of CXL on stabilizing ectasia after LASIK. Read here ...
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Cross-Linking to treat Acanthamoeba keratitis

Cornea Journal. ELZA members on the effectiveness of Cross-Linking to treat Acanthamoeba keratitis. Read the article here ...
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Complication management after Cross-Linking (CXL)

American Journal of Ophthalmology. Letter on Complication management after Cross-Linking (CXL). Read here ...
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Keratoconus during pregnancy

Journal of Refractive Surgery. ELZA shows that the cornea of a person suffering from keratoconus may show massive estrogen-related changes ...
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Electrical stimulation of the retina

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS). Scientific study to investigate on the electrical stimulation of the retina in retinal degeneration ...
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First study on Cross-linking in children and adolescents

Journal of Refractive Surgery. ELZA members published the first large study on Cross-Linking for keratoconus in children and adolescents. Read ...
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Study on the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS). People that became blind due to Retinal degeneration see hand movements after implantation of ...
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Laboratory study on retinal implants and visual perception

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. Read the study here ...
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Complication Management after Cross-Linking

Journal of Refractive Surgery. Case report depicting complication management after Cross-Linking. Read here ...
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The Argus II Retinal Prosthesis

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS). This study on an artificial retina shows the use of the Argus II Retinal ...
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Pregnancy may be a risk factor after LASIK

Journal of Refractive Surgery. ELZA members show that pregnancy may lead to corneal complications, even years after LASIK, if proper ...
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A new and minimally invasive Glaucoma Procedure

European Ophthalmic Review. Clinical study on HFDS ab interno, a new pressure-lowering procedure. Read here ...
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Repeated Cross-Linking for recurrent keratoconus

Ophthalmology. This is the first report on repeated cross-linking for recurrent keratoconus. Read the article here ...
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Epithelial ingrowth after LASIK

British Journal of Ophthalmology. This work describes the nature of epithelial cells that may grow in the flap interface after ...
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Creating femtosecond laser lamellas after keratoplasty

Book: Femtosecond lasers. An outlook on the potential future of the femtosecond laser: applanation-free treatments. Read here ...
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Applanation-free femtosecond laser processing of the cornea

Book: Femtosecond lasers. An outlook on the potential future of the femtosecond laser: applanation-free treatments. Read here ...
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Translational Vision Research in Refractive Surgery

Journal of Refractive Surgery. Editorial on how to translate research into clinical applications in the field of ophthalmology. Read here ...
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Ectasia after LASIK treated by CXL

Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. Discussing the options in a patient suffering from ectasia after LASIK, with Jose L. Güell, ...
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Massive flattening of the cornea after Cross-Linking

British Journal of Ophthalmology. Study by Hafezi and co-workers, describing that in some cases (1:200), the cornea may flatten massively ...
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X-Ray Scattering after CXL

PLOSOne. Laboratory study investigating light scattering after CXL using X-Ray scattering. Read here ...
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Limitation of Cross-Linking in extremely thin corneas

Cornea. Description and discussion of failure of CXL technology in extremely thin corneas. Read here ...
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Smoking and corneal stiffness

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS). Letter to the Editor. Read here ...
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Light-adjustable lenses in cataract surgery

Ophthalmology. Complication in early light-adjustable lens technology. Read here ...
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Topographical changes during and after CXL

Journal of Refractive Surgery. Read here ...
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Infections after PRK and their management (Article in german)

Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd Case report on managing corneal infection after PRK, before PACK-CXL emerged. Read here ...
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CXL for Fuchs dystrophy

British Journal of Ophthalmology. A new modified CXL technique for Fuchs dystrophy. Read here ...
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Effect of CXL on phakic lenses

Journal of Refractive Surgery. Riboflavin and UV-A do not harm phakic lenses. Read here ...
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Tear gland disease in Sarcoidosis (Article in german)

Der Ophthalmologe Case report on macroglobulinemia Waldenstrom. Read here ...
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Redefining corneal dystrophies

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS). New classification of corneal dystrophies. Read here ...
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Complication management in SBK

Journal of Refractive Surgery. Case report on thin-flap sub Bowman LASIK. Read here ...
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Intrastromal corneal rings and cross-linking

Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. Rings first, or rings second? This study from 2009 gave the answer. Read here ...
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Smoking and corneal biomechanics

Ophthalmology. Tobacco smoking stiffens the cornea. Read here ...
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Corneal Cross-linking in Keratectasia

European Ophthalmic Review. Read here ...
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Cross-Linking review

Iranian Journal of Ophthalmology. Read here ...
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New evisceration techniques

Der Ophthalmologe. Read here ...
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Scheimpflug Imaging of Corneas After Cross-Linking

Cornea. Assessing corneal topographies after Cross-Linking. Read here ...
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Pseudomonas contamination of donor corneas (Article in german)

Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde. Read here ...
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Collagen cross-linking in thin corneas

Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. The study that had introduced hypotonic/hypoosmolaric riboflavin for thin corneas. Read here ...
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One of the first clinical studies on Cross-Linking for keratoconus

Journal of Refractive Surgery. Data gathered from 2007-2008, published in 2009. Read here ...
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CXL in Brazil (Article in Portuguese)

Brazilian Book on Corneal Cross-Linking (CXL). Read the chapter here ...
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Orbital Inflammation due to Melanoma (Article in german)

Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde. Read here ...
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Pregnancy exacerbates iatrogenic keratectasia

Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. The very first report on the use of CXL to halt ectasia that was ...
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Transgenic mice reflecting human acute angle-closure glaucoma

Clinical Science. Generation of a new animal model for human acute angle-closure glaucoma. Read here ...
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Cross-linking for Infectious Keratitis

Cornea. The very first report on cross-linking for corneal infection. Read here ...
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Corneal Dellen (Article in german)

Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde. Read here ...
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CXL for ectasia after LASIK

Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. First study on CXL for ectasia after LASIK. Read here ...
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Orbital Trauma with double vision

Der Ophthalmologe. Read here ...
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New treatment of steep central islands after refractive laser surgery

Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. Read here ...
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Corneal Cross-Linking–Induced Stromal Demarcation Line

Cornea. Discovery of the demarcation line in cross-linking. Read here ...
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Q-factor customized ablation profiles for excimer laser surgery

Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. Read here ...
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Reoperations after LASIK (Article in german)

Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde. Read here ...
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Two-step procedure to enlarge small optical zones after PRK

Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. Read here08 ...
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First report on a 500-Hz Scanning Spot Excimer Laser

Journal of Refractive Surgery. Read here ...
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Silent Sinus Syndrome

Ophthalmologica. Read here ...
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Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty

Journal of Refractive Surgery. Read here ...
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Light Damage Susceptibility and RPE65 in Rats

Experimental Eye Research. Read here ...
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Fra-1 substitutes for c-Fos in retinal apoptosis

Journal of Neurochemistry. Read here ...
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Traumatic choroidal effusion

Der Ophthalmologe. Read here ...
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Idiopathic sclerochoroidal calcification (Article in german)

Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde. Read here ...
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Photoreceptor Apoptosis and the Glucocorticoid Receptor

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS). Read here ...
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Protective Effect of Halothane on Retinal Light Damage

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS). Read here ...
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Blue-Light Damage to the Rat Retina

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS). Read here ...
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Therapeutic Approaches in Retinitis Pigmentosa (Article in German)

Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde. Read here ...
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Animal models for retinal degenerations and dystrophies

British Journal of Ophthalmology. Read here ...
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Photoreversal of Bleaching

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS). Read here ...
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Apoptosis in the Retina: The Silent Death of Vision

News in Physiological Sciences. Read here ...
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Electrophysiology of c-fos deficient mice

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS). Read here ...
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Marked physiological pupillary Hippus

Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde. Read here ...
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Electroretinogram of p53 knockout mice

Documenta Ophthalmologica. Read here ...
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Photoreceptor apoptosis and JunD

Cell Death & Differentiation. Read here ...
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Photoreceptor autophagy

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS). Read here ...
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Light damage to the eye (Article in german)

Risikofaktoren für Augenerkrankungen. Read here ...
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AP-1 and light-induced apoptosis

Vision Research. Read here ...
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Fos / rd mice and photoreceptor apoptosis

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS). Generation of a double mutant knockout mouse. Read here ...
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Apoptotic Cell Death in Retinal Degenerations

Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. Major review, read here ...
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Photostasis in the Retina

Photostasis and related Phenomena. Read here ...
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Light damage to retina and pigment epithelium

The Retinal Pigment Epithelium. Read here ...
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Light-Induced Photoreceptor Apoptosis in the Absence of p53

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS). Read here ...
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UV light and ocular light damage (Article in german)

Physikalische Therapiemassnahmen in der Dermatologie. Read here ...
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Arachidonic acid metabolites and photoreceptor apoptosis

Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde. Read here ...
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Retinal light damage and c-fos

Degenerative Retinal Diseases. Read here ...
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Early events in light-induced photoreceptor apoptosis

Les Seminaires ophtalmologiques d'Ipsen. Read here ...
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Light-induced apoptosis in the rat retina

Experimental Eye Research. Read here ...
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Review on Retinal Light Damage

Grafe's Archives for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. Read here ...
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Light-induced apoptosis in the retina

Degenerative Diseases of the Retina. One of the first studies to show photoreceptor death by apoptosis in the rodent retina in ...
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Insulin sensitivity

Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. Read here ...
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